The hand’s bone joints are reinforced together by ligaments, collateral ligaments
situated on both sides of the joint and reinforcement anterior to the capsule.
The musculature of the hand is extensive and divided into that whose origin is
the hand or intrinsic musculature, which contains interosseous muscles, lumbricals,
the muscle groups in the region of the little finger and thumb, and musculature
whose origin is the forearm or extrinsic, whose function is flexion-extension of
the fingers. This, together with the fibrous tissue that covers the musculature,
makes up the soft tissue of the hand.
In the event of trauma of varying degrees of severity, a number of injuries can
occur, resulting in sprains or interphalangeal dislocations, which usually occur
dorsally, affecting the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) and distal interphalangeal
(DIP) joints or both, as well as the MCP (metacarpophalangeal), and have different
degrees of classification, the most serious being that in which ligament rupture
occurs with the presence of instability and functional disability.
Shortening of the length of the finger with joint deformity. Pain and functional
disability with the inability to perform any type of movement. In severe cases, it
can be accompanied by a fracture.
Inflammation of a tendon or group of tendons can occur, causing compression
of the sheath that covers it, which is very painful and disabling.
The joints can become stiff if their immobilisation exceeds 3-6 weeks.
As well as different surgical and/or therapeutic techniques, such as tendon,
neuro-muscular, bone and skin repair and other aspects present in hand injuries,
and rehabilitation techniques, passive and/or dynamic or active orthoses are
suitable for use as a conservative treatment method. The purpose of passive
orthoses is to keep the articular segments in a certain position as determined
by the prescriber, and they are indicated for use as a conservative or post-surgical
method. Dynamic orthoses enable functional recovery by improving mobility
range and strengthening muscles and tendons. Correct selection of the most
appropriate orthosis and proper fitting and monitoring by the orthopaedic technician
is of paramount importance to the success of orthotic treatment.