A calcaneal (heel) spur is a bone spur or calcification in the base of the calcaneus at
the insertion of the plantar fascia which can cause complications, such as
inflammation of the plantar fascia, resulting in plantar fasciitis.
It is usually caused by excessive traction or stretching of the periosteum of the
calcaneus by the plantar fascia. Flat or cavus feet and Achilles tendon contractures
can also cause heel spurs as a result of increased plantar fascia tension.
The primary symptom is pain, specifically located in the loading area of the heel.
In very rare cases, redness, inflammation or other skin conditions are evident.
It is common in people who play sport or those who are overweight, and the
overload can cause tears in its posterior insertion and inflammation of the tissue
surrounding the bone.
Rest and reduced everyday physical activities and sport. Rehabilitation techniques
help to reduce the inflammation and, together with plantar orthoses designed for
such a purpose, such as heel cups and insoles made from various materials,
have the objective of selectively unloading the spur and relaxing the plantar
fascia to minimise tension and overload.
Nighttime splints to keep the foot at rest at a 90° angle of flexion-extension are
very useful for severe spurs associated with plantar fasciitis.