Osteoarthritis of the knee - causes & symptoms & treatment

2019-07-11
Osteoarthritis of the knee - causes & symptoms & treatmentOsteoarthritis is an incurable joint disease manifesting itself with gradually progressing degenerative changes, leading to premature motor disability. These changes mainly occur owing to an imbalance between the processes of degeneration and regeneration of articular cartilage structures. Until now many risk factors favoring the development of degenerative joint disease  have been identified. These include age, weight, previously sustained traumas to joints, sports, sex and genetic predisposition. The latest scientific reports confirm that the pathogenesis of changes in osteoarthritic joints is complex and occurs on many levels. Enzymes belonging to the metalloproteinases family are mainly responsible for the degeneration of articular cartilage. Their activity is regulated by numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines, transcription factors and miRNA. A thorough analysis of all processes occurring in the afflicted joints needs  to be carried out before effective therapeutic strategies can be developed.

Causes of Osteoarthritis of the Knee


There are over 100 types of arthritis - osteoarthritis, post-traumatic, rheumatoid, etc. The most common form is osteoarthritis, also known as OA or degenerative joint disease. 
Osteoarthritis is characterized by the breakdown of the articular cartilage, the firm whitish-colored rubbery protein material covering the ends of bones. It acts as a cushion and bearing surface between the bones, allowing them to glide smoothly over each other with almost zero friction. Osteoarthritis commonly affects large weight-bearing joints such as the hip and knee, but may affect any joint. Knee osteoarthritis is the most common osteoarthritis, and is the leading cause of disability in the EU & US.
The exact cause of knee osteoarthritis is unknown. Some contributing factors include: previous injury, aging, misalignment, genetics, and obesity.


Symptoms of Knee Osteoarthritis

The number one symptom of osteoarthritis of the knee is pain. The causes of pain in osteoarthritis include: irritation and pressure on the nerve endings in the bones, inflammation of the joint lining (synovitis), muscle tension and fatigue. The pain may progress from mild soreness and aching with movement to severe pain even during rest. The second symptom is loss of easy movement. As the lining cartilage wears away, the joints no longer glide smoothly. Eventually, the ends of the bones become rough and irregular, with resulting stiffness. This lack of mobility, in turn, often causes the muscles serving the knee to weaken, and overall body coordination suffers. Other symptoms common to osteoarthritis include grinding and "popping" sensations, joint swelling, and feelings of locking or giving way.

The diagnosis of osteoarthritis is usually made based upon the patient's medical history, physical examination, and X-ray findings. An MRI may be helpful in some cases to confirm the diagnosis and rule out any other conditions.

How to Treat Knee Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is not a curable condition. The disease usually progresses slowly or worsens over many years. Therefore, goals include decreasing pain, swelling, and inflammation, while increasing or maintaining joint function. To achieve these goals, a number of different treatments are used. Non-operative forms of pain management may include physical therapy, icing, activity modification, and bracing. Medications, or anti-inflammatories help decrease pain and swelling. An over-the-counter supplement containing glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate may be taken long-term to help alleviate symptoms and possibly slow progression of the disease. Cortisone injections into the joint may reduce acute symptoms for several months. Three or four steroid injections may be given per year, in each affected joint, without harm. Some relatively new injectable medications (Synvisc, Hyalgan) may help alleviate symptoms for 6 to 12 months in certain patients. These are administered by a series of 3 or 5 weekly injections, and may be repeated as needed.

Wearing osteoarthritis knee braces can also help alleviate pain as you go about your daily activities. These knee braces work by reducing pressure on the arthritic areas of the knee and offloading it to the healthier areas of the knee. treatment for osteoarthritis of the knee.

Brace for Osteoarthritis of the Knee




Sources:

  1. Zhang Y., Jordan J. M.: Epidemiology of osteoarthritis. Clin. Geriatr. Med., 2010; 26: 355-369
  2. Blagojevic M., Jinks C., Jeffery A., Jordan K.P.: Risk factors for onset of osteoarthritis of the knee in older adults: a systematic review and metaanalysis. Osteoarthritis Cartilage, 2010; 18: 24-33.
  3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Prevalence of disabilities and associated health conditions among adults United States, 1999. MMWR Morb. Mortal. Wkly Rep., 2001; 50: 120-125.
  4. Elders M.J.: The increasing impact of arthritis on public health. J. Rheumatol. Suppl., 2000; 60: 6-8.
  5. Foye P.M., Stitik T.P., Chen B., Nadler S.F.: Osteoarthritis and body weight. Nutrition Res., 2000; 20: 899-903[27] Garstang S.V., Stitik T.P.: Osteoarthritis: epidemiology, risk factors, and pathophysiology. Am. J. Phys. Med. Rehabil., 2006; 85: S2 - S11.
  6. Kean W.F., Kean R., Buchanan W.W.: Osteoarthritis: symptoms, signs and source of pain. Inflammopharmacology, 2004; 12: 3-31.
  7. Loeser R.F.: Aging and osteoarthritis. Curr. Opin. Rheumatol., 2011; 23: 492-496.
Show more entries from July 2019

Recommended

This page uses cookie files to provide its services in accordance to Cookies Usage Policy. You can determine conditions of storing or access to cookie files in your web browser.
Close
pixel