Lower back pain, commonly known as lumbago, is pain in the lower back that is usually produced by musculoskeletal syndrome disorders affecting the vertebrae, muscles, ligaments and nervous system.
What lower back pain causes?
It's can have numerous causes, including degenerative disorders such as arthritis or rheumatoid arthrosis. Its most common cause is mechanical, as the lumbar segment of the spine has more mobility and needs to withstand the vertebral column’s highest mechanical demands. When the affected segment is between T12 and L4, it is called high lumbago, which is quite rare, and if the segment is between L4 and the pelvis, it is known as low lumbago. Classification is determined by duration: Acute - less than 4 weeks Sub-acute - between 4 and 12 weeks Chronic - over 12 weeks Its different characteristics enable the various lumbar processes to be distinguished. The presence of nerve root pain, acute nerve root compression, nerve root entrapment or neurogenic claudication can lead to herniated discs, spondylosis or other clinical manifestations, resulting in varying degrees of low back pain.
Symptoms of lower back pain
Dull pain that radiates down the leg resulting in the patient having difficulty walking or even standing. In some cases, the pain can radiate to the groin, buttock or posterior thigh (sciatica). Muscle spasms and pain on palpation with burning and tingling, weakness in the legs especially after walking and tight hamstrings. The pain can be mild, severe or even disabling, and worse when bending backwards.
Orthotic Treatment of lower back pain
Medication and rehabilitation, along with lumbar back braces, are the most common conservative treatment for low back pain. The different types of orthosis provide increased intra-abdominal pressure to unload the lumbar spine. Limiting mobility to varying degrees depends on the orthotic device selected. Those that incorporate flexible components (fabrics, elastomers) or posterior metal and thermoplastic reinforcements and structures provide greater control and immobilisation than those that only feature elastic elements with reinforcement straps for loosening or tightening. Thus, we can distinguish between containment braces and immobilisation braces, which always act on the sagittal (flexion and extension), frontal (lateral movement) and transverse (rotational movement) planes.